The wonderful perspective of “Villa della Farnesina”

arts in rome artsinrome master fine art romaVilla della Farnesina was erected at the beginning of the XVI century by [sg_popup id=”12″]Baldassare Peruzzi[/sg_popup], a man and an artist who gave many treasures at Rome.

Inside this wonderful villa, the main and the most gorgeous example of the Renaissance building in the city, Peruzzi managed to create and think something curious and beautiful: two rooms completely covered by frescos. Special frescos… We stay at the second floor of Villa della Farnesina which was commissioned by the rich man Agostino Chigi.  He was a banker, lending much money to everyone, particularly Popes. For this reason his patrimony was so large, quite enormous.

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Many noblemen in that period wanted to underline their power building graceful homes, plenty of artistic masterpieces.
In fact, Agostino Chigi decided to call one of the main artist of his period in order to realize his home and representative Villa: the architect was Baldassare Peruzzi, a friend of [sg_popup id=”13″]Raffaello Sanzio[/sg_popup].
Raphael too worked and embellished the villa, but today I wish to talk about to Baldassare Peruzzi, who created something incredible. Going in the first room, named “Salone delle Prospettive”, your look will be totally captured by the frescos of the wall, that haven’t no empty spaces. Everything was covered by colors and, mainly, false perspective.

What is it?

arts in rome artsinrome art master in romeWe have a perspective when the third dimension is set in a surface with just two dimensions. Peruzzi was able to create landscapes and panoramic viewpoints where there is just a wall… Moreover he used false architectural elements, as columns and balaustrades, in order to improve the sense of depth. Usually in that period the ancient art and elements which could remember the history of Rome and Ancient Greek were used to decorate villas, palaces etc. It was due to the incredible love, and sometimes mania, which developped in Rome during the beginning of the XVI century. This colorful room brought our mind in new dimensions, in a false reality which is totally different by the one that we know. But this reality is quite similar, with its ancient buildings and fantastic landscapes, to the ones which the Romans of the Empire searched in their wonderful villas outside the wall of the city centre. In this way we could understand how the Renaissance discovered another time not only the art of Rome, but also its functions.

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But there is also another room at the secondo floor of Villa della Farnesina, just beyond the first hall. In this case walls are totally covered by frescos depicting historical people and deeds, with Alessandro Magno and his life as main character. The general who conquered quite the entire world with his enomrous army, arriving in India and getting in touch with numerous populations and tribes, was in that period a symbol of powerful. For this reason Baldassare Peruzzi decided to choose him, in order to create a connection with Agostino Chigi. In this way the rich man could be consider himself as a sort of man who could rule the world with his main weapon: money

Campidoglio Square and the Perspective

The PERSPECTIVE of Capitoline Hill (Il Campidoglio), Rome.

When we find ourselves in front of a building or architecture it is difficult to understand the rules of construction unless it is studied previously. Today we look at the structure of Capitoline Hill, and we talk about the Anti-perspective.

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Campidoglio Sqare – Map view

The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. The name capitol seems to have meant “dominant height”. The Capitoline contains few ancient ground-level ruins, as they are almost entirely covered up by Medieval and Renaissance palaces (now housing the Capitoline Museums) that surround a piazza, a significant urban plan designed by Michelangelo.

The existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio and the surrounding buildings was created by Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536–1546.

Campidoglio Hill
Capitoline Hill – original structure

Michelangelo’s solution to the problems of the space in the Piazza del Campidoglio:

Even with their new facades centering them on the new palazzo at the rear, the space was a trapezoid, and the facades did not face each other squarely. Worse still, the whole site sloped. Michelangelo’s solution was radical. The three remodelled buildings enclose a harmonious trapezoidal space, approached by the ramped staircase called the “Cordonata“. The stepped ramp of the cordonata was intended, like a slow-moving escalator, to lift its visitors toward the sky and deposit them on the threshold of municipal authority.

He also used the

Slow-Perspective Rule

As Emanuela Pulvirenti as well explains in her blog  www.didatticarte.it, Michelangelo kept the oblique orientation of pre-existing buildings, getting an open -plan slightly trapezoidal ( the Senators Palace and that of the Conservatives form an angle of 80 ° ) , on which lined the new facades , in order to expand the perspective to the visual focus consisting of the Senatorial Palace.

Simple slow-perspective scheme:antiprospettivaThe slow perspective (or antiperspective), provides the sides of a place is divergent to compensate the convergence of the prospective flights. The end is the effect of an atmosphere less deep than it is really.

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The antiprospettiva makes the square appear wider and shorter when viewed from the side porch and the Church most majestic and looming .

campidoglio view
Campidoglio front view